Use antifreeze products that do not contain ethylene glycol like Prestone LowTox® or Sierra®. Max is a 3 year old, castrated male Pit Bull mix that presented to Iowa Veterinary Specialties due to loss of balance and coordination, walking in circles, and urinating while walking. A calculation called the “osmolal gap,” if your veterinarian suspects recent ethylene glycol poisoning. > “In both dogs and cats, toxic doses of ethylene glycol cause CNS depression followed by acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis,” Brutlag says. I have treated ethylene glycol intoxication with both 4MP and vodka and hands down 4MP is the way to go from the management standpoint. Garbage ingestion. Antifreeze spills should be washed away with large amounts of water. Potential sources of ethylene glycol in the environment include antifreeze (the most common source of ethylene glycol poisoning), air-conditioning coolants, brake fluid, heat exchange fluids from so… but he is free to roam three acres … Ethylene glycol poisoning is common because antifreeze is widely used, it has a sweet taste and small lethal dose (only 3 to 4 teaspoons in dogs, 1 to 2 teaspoons in cats), and it … Its concentration in automotive radiator fluid is high (95%), a source to which pets (dogs and cats) have easy access. How is 4-methylpyrazole used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? Some animals with severe kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite dialysis support. Unfortunately, these drugs are not often effective once severe kidney failure has developed and more than 80 percent of pets with kidney shutdown due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite diligent medical treatment. Dogs may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. Your veterinarian may recommend you give your pet hydrogen peroxide by mouth to induce vomiting before you transport the animal to the hospital. These signs develop within 30 minutes to 12 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol depending on the amount ingested. The available information on the acute and subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is reviewed. More than 80 percent of pets with severe acute kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite intensive treatment. 4-MP does not produce “drunkenness,” but it cannot be used in cats. Induction of vomiting is indicated if your pet is seen within a few hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. A toxic dose requiring medical treatment varies but is considered more than 0.1 mL per kg body weight (mL/kg) of pure substance. Amoroso L, Cocumelli C(1), Bruni G, Brozzi A, Tancredi F, Grifoni G, Mastromattei A, Meoli R, Di Guardo G, Eleni C. Author information: (1)Istituto Zoopro lattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Rome, Italy. If treated promptly and appropriately, pets that have consumed ethylene glycol will not develop kidney failure and have a good chance of survival. Toxic metabolites of EG cause severe metabolic acidosis and renal tubular epithelial damage. Antifreeze, which often contains ethylene glycol (EG), can be extremely dangerous to dogs and cats. When these substances are left out where dogs can get them or when spills aren’t cleaned up, dogs may be attracted to the sweet taste. Treatment for ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs may not require hospitalization if it begins within five hours of ingestion. Unfortunately, in many cases the owner is not aware that the pet has consumed ethylene glycol and first recognizes the non-specific signs of severe acute kidney failure such as lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting. These include: Therapy is often successful if the dog is seen by the veterinarian within a few hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol and before kidney damage has occurred. Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. It is an extremely dangerous toxin and the lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. An chemical test to detect ethylene glycol in the blood. Either 20 percent ethanol (ethyl alcohol) or 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP or Antizol®) is used to prevent the breakdown of ethylene glycol to its toxic end-products. Twenty percent ethanol produces nervous system signs of “drunkenness” but can be used both in dogs and cats. Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning is common in dogs and cats 1 – 4 and often results in death if it is not diagnosed and treated promptly. There is no known exposure to drugs, medications, toxins, compost, garbage, etc. Overview of Ethylene Glycol Toxicity. Airport Animal Emergency CenterIndianapolis, IN USAEthylen glycol test (Kacey Diagnostics) was positive. ASPCA pet poison hotline at (888) 426-4435, cause of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs, Dehydration (urination continues but thirst and drinking stop), Decreased urination or no urination at all. The test is only accurate if performed within 6 to 12 hours of ingestion. It is categorized by the FDA as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substance. It’s critical to begin treatment within the first four hours of ingestion in … Antifreeze products containing propylene glycol cause signs of drunkenness but are not fatal unless very large quantities are consumed, in which case death is the result of alcohol poisoning. Potential sources of ethylene glycol in the environment include antifreeze (the most common source of ethylene glycol poisoning), air-conditioning coolants, brake fluid, heat exchange fluids from solar collectors, and fluids used in color film processing. Acidosis (acidic blood) can also be detected through the biochemistry profile. Last update: Oct 2, 2020 1 answer. Transport your pet to your veterinarian immediately. Induced vomiting eliminates poison that had not yet been absorbed from the stomach. Deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney result in a very bright (white on the ultrasound monitor) appearance within hours, Kidney biopsy to confirm ethylene glycol poisoning if kidney failure is present, Induction of vomiting by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide if possible before transport of the pet to the veterinary hospital, Hospitalization of the pet usually is necessary, Induction of vomiting (if not successful before arrival) and gastric lavage (pumping of the stomach) to remove the poison before it can be broken down to its toxic end-products, Administration of activated charcoal to bind ethylene glycol within the digestive tract, Intravenous fluid administration to correct dehydration, Treatment with sodium bicarbonate if acidosis is severe, Specific drugs such as 20 percent ethyl alcohol or 4-methylpyrazole (Antizol®) that inhibit the breakdown of ethylene glycol to its toxic end-products if the pet is seen within several hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol, Drugs to treat kidney failure and encourage urine production such as the diuretic furosemide and blood vessel-dilating drug dopamine. Here are the final symptoms of the condition: (Picture Credit: JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images). Clinicopathologic findings were retrospectively evaluated in 26 cats and 24 dogs with ethylene glycol intoxication. The accumulation of glycolate and the elimination kinetics of EG and its metabolites are not well understood, so studies with male Sprague-Dawley rats and mixed breed dogs have been carried out. Here’s what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs. All Rights Reserved, Complete medical history and physical examination, Ethylene glycol test should be performed as soon after ingestion as possible, Urinalysis to evaluate for characteristic calcium oxalate crystals (one of the metabolic end-products of ethylene glycol breakdown), casts, and other evidence of kidney damage, Blood gas analysis to evaluate for the presence of severe acidosis, Serum biochemistry tests to evaluate for electrolyte disturbances (including low blood calcium) and abnormally high kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum phosphorus), Abdominal ultrasound examination to evaluate kidney size and appearance. How do you protect your dog from antifreeze poisoning in winter months? The ultrasound examination typically shows very bright kidneys with ethylene glycol poisoning. Pets that are allowed to roam unsupervised are more likely to encounter a source of ethylene glycol and consume it. Common clinical signs were ataxia, depression, vomiting, and hypothermia. Ethylene glycol poisoning can be fatal if not treated soon after ingestion (within 4 to 8 hours). Keep containers of antifreeze and air-conditioning coolant tightly closed and out of reach of pets. Ethylene glycol toxicity in a dog. Without a doubt untreated ethylene glycol intoxication will kill a dog. Propylene Glycol Toxicosis. 2 Ethylene glycol is most commonly found in automotive antifreeze and is also used as a precursor to industrial polymers. Call your veterinarian immediately if you suspect your dog to have consumed ethylene glycol. Metabolites cytotoxic to renal tubular cells, also contribute to metabolic acidosis. Urinalysis to evaluate for dilute urine, casts, and calcium oxalate crystals, which appear in the urine within 3 to 5 hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. Such pets never develop kidney failure and are discharged from the hospital after a few days of treatment and observation. Ethylene glycol toxicosis is a type of poisoning that occurs in dogs after ingestion of antifreeze or other fluids containing the ingredient ethylene glycol. Failure to identify calcium oxalate crystals in the urine does not rule out the possibility of ethylene glycol poisoning because crystal formation may cease within a few days of poisoning. LD50 2-6 mg/kg (3-5 ml/kg). Max has no prior history of seizures to the owners’ knowledge, but they have owned him for only three months. The active ingredient in antifreeze is a substance called ethylene glycol. Intravenous fluids often are continued 24 to 48 hours after treatment with 4-MP or 20 percent ethanol has been completed. EG is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract; in dogs, blood concentrations of EG peak within 3 hr of ingestion. Propylene glycol poisoning in dogs is caused by ingesting propylene glycol. Activated charcoal binds ethylene glycol in the stomach and allows it to pass through the digestive tract to be eliminated in the stool. He has also been trembling. Food Hazards. A high osmolal gap raises suspicion that a large amount of ethylene glycol metabolites are present in the blood. Severe gastroenteritis or intestinal tract obstruction. Characteristic alterations in the hemogram and serum chemical profile included neutrophilia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased whole blood bicarbonate. EG intoxication is the second most common cause of fatal poisoning in animals according to the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Ingestion of ethylene glycol (EG) is a frequently encountered toxicity in dogs and cats. Treatment is often futile after severe kidney failure has developed. Thus a little more than three tablespoons (or 45 milliliters) could be lethal for a 22 pound (10 kg) dog. • It is the most toxic of similarly used alcohols (ethyl alcohol, butylene glycol and propylene glycol). Ethylene glycol has a sweet taste and dogs will consume it readily. Treatment at that point aims at reducing symptoms. If kidney failure already is present (based on observation of high kidney function test results and lack of urine production) the prognosis for recovery is very poor. Why can't it be used in cats? Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are available for animals that have developed severe kidney failure and are not producing urine despite intravenous fluid, furosemide and dopamine administration. Ethylene glycol is metabolized similarly to ETHANOL thus it is not surprising that animals show ataxia & CNs depression approx. Consumption of the fruit, seed, stem, or leaves of avocados can cause toxicity in animals. Diagnostic test are needed to recognize ethylene glycol toxicosis, including: Treatment for ethylene glycol toxicosis in dogs includes one or more of the following: Remove your dog from the source of ethylene glycol immediately. Let us know in the comments below! An ultrasound examination and ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy for diagnosis if the pet is presented in kidney failure. Your veterinarian may recommend you induce vomiting in your pet by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide. Dialysis may also be needed to filter waste from the blood. Cases of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs and cats have been regularly reported in the United States (Mueller, 1982; Rowland, 1987; Adams et al., 1991; Connally et al., 1996; Khan et al., 1999). Ethylene glycol toxicosis is a type of poisoning that occurs in dogs after ingestion of antifreeze or other fluids containing the ingredient ethylene glycol. This is a serious condition, and dogs only need to consume about a half a teaspoon of ethylene glycol per pound of body weight for it to be fatal. Affiliate Disclosure: Evolve Media LLC, and its owned and operated websites may receive a small commission from the proceeds of any product(s) sold through affiliate and direct partner links. Unfortunately, many owners do not realize that their pet has consumed ethylene glycol and don’t become aware of the problem until the pet shows non-specific symptoms of kidney failure like loss of appetite, lethargy and vomiting two to three days later. Examples of these diseases include: Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests and subsequent treatment recommendations. “Renal damage is thought to be secondary to calcium oxalate deposition, and crystalluria is a consistent finding in ethylene glycol poisoning. Common … For both propylene glycol and ethylene glycol, signs of toxicity are seen within 1-6 hours. It may take weeks of treatment before kidney function returns to normal. A cathartic may be given with the activated charcoal to speed its movement through the digestive tract. The minimum lethal dose for dogs averages five milliliters per kilogram of body weight. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a clear, odorless compound that, because of its palatability, is occasionally ingested by both dogs and cats, with severe and potentially fatal consequences. Ethylene Glycol toxicity . Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity results from its metabolism to glycolic acid and other toxic metabolites. These signs include vomiting, ataxia/drunken gait, disorientation, and increased thirst and urination. The symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs come in three stages that get progressively worse the longer an affected dog goes without treatment. A biopsy is recommended to confirm the diagnosis of acute kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning because of the extensive treatment required and the poor prognosis. Excreted via kidneys. 5 The mortality rate in dogs is reported to range from 59% to 70% 1, 5 and is thought to be even higher in cats. Oxalate crystal formation → renal tubular damage. Propylene glycol is not as toxic as another common antifreeze ingredient known as ethylene glycol; however, it is still poisonous and dogs require medical treatment if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%. Gastric lavage (pumping the stomach) also is indicated if your pet is seen within a few hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. Previous Question Is there a recall on Milo's Kitchen dog treats? The goal of this treatment is to eliminate ethylene glycol from the body before it can cause significant damage. The most common cause of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs is ingestion of antifreeze, though ethylene glycol is present in several other substances, including many paints, stains, inks, brake fluid, motor oils, and more. In many instances, owners are not aware their pets have consumed ethylene glycol until it is too late and severe kidney failure has developed. Propylene glycol is a common ingredient in antifreeze, lubricants, and products of plasticity. While antifreeze is the most common substance that causes the condition, ethylene glycol can also be found in windshield de-icers, brake fluid, motor oils, paints, wood stains, inks, printer cartridges, and more. Fomepizole is expensive but life-saving when administered to dogs within the first 8-12 hours of ingestion. If more time has elapsed since ingestion, toxins in the body may build up and cause kidney failure. It is a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting solution. Fluids are administered intravenously to correct dehydration resulting from vomiting and to help prevent damage to the kidneys. These 95% commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50% with water when used in vehicle cooling systems. Symptoms of the first stage of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs appear within 30 minutes of ingestion. The symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs come in three stages that get progressively worse the longer an affected dog goes without treatment. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Dogs that roam outside unsupervised are more likely to encounter ethylene glycol in antifreeze which has been disposed of improperly. Treatment is difficult and hospitalization may extend for weeks. Despite its bright color, antifreeze may be hard to spot when it gets covered in snow or slush. This treatment will focus on correcting fluid imbalances and electrolytes, as well as reducing the effects of acidosis. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate may be required if the pet has severe acidosis (low blood pH). Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. Thiamine (vitamin B1) may be administered to aid in the conversion of the toxic by-products to non-toxic metabolites. ANSWERS. Prevent access of pets to areas where ethylene glycol-containing products may be stored or spilled like the garage or driveway. Your veterinarian may recommend any of the following treatments for dogs with ethylene glycol poisoning: ©Copyright 1999 - 2020. Many animals will voluntarily drink ethylene glycol if antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors or driveways. Sources of ethylene glycol include automotive antifreeze (radiator coolant, which typically contains 95% ethylene glycol), windshield deicing agents, motor oils, hydraulic brake fluid, developing solutions for photography, paints, solvents, etc. The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4-6 ml/kg body weight in dogs.” According to Pet Poison Helpline, common signs … That is roughly 16 mL of 50% ethylene glycol for an 80 kg adult and 4 mL for a 20 kg child. (Picture Credit: Kunal Patil/Hindustan Times via Getty Images). I think I would argue for 4MP but with the following considerations – The following second stage symptoms can appear within twelve to 24 hours of consuming ethylene glycol: The symptoms of the third stage of ethylene glycol toxicity occur within 36 to 72 hours after consuming the substance. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Venous blood gas analysis to identify severe acidosis (low blood pH) characteristic of early ethylene glycol poisoning. As little as half a teaspoon per pound of a dog’s body weight can result in fatality. All animals are susceptible to ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity, but it is most common in dogs and cats. EG is found in antifreeze (95% solution), windshield de-icing agents, and some industrial solvents (detergents, photographic developing solutions, brake fluid, motor oil, paints, wood stains, and polishes). The IHC Group. Clean up spills immediately and thoroughly. This treatment is adjunctive only. These causes of kidney failure are distinguished from that caused by ethylene glycol by laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasound and kidney biopsy. This may result from other types of toxins, trauma and infection. It’s especially important in winter months to watch for the symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs. Treatment of acute kidney failure depends on the underlying cause. There are 15 ml in a tablespoon, so 2 tablespoons (30ml) could be lethal for a 15-pound dog, and less than one-half of a tablespoon is lethal to a 10-pound cat. © 2020 All rights reserved. Both drugs must be used within 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol, and drug choice is determined by drug availability. These procedures require referral to a veterinary specialist. Ethylene glycol damages doggie kidneys by acting as a magnet for calcium. Ethylene glycol toxicity: a retrospective pathological study in cats. Animals that have ingested garbage, especially garbage that contains moldy food, may shake and have muscle tremors, which helps to distinguish them from animals poisoned with ethylene glycol. Timecourse A complete medical history and physical examination to determine if exposure to ethylene glycol or other toxins has occurred. Bicarbonate may be given to reduce metabolic acidosis, a condition where toxins cause the body’s pH level to fall too low. Acute kidney failure. Dogtime is a property of TotallyHer Media, LLC, an Evolve Media, LLC company. Abnormal kidney function tests, like high blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum phosphorus, will be observed if acute kidney failure has developed between 12 and 72 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning includes the antidote fomepizole (also known as 4-MP) or ethanol. The symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning, however, are not specific for this disorder. However, these tests are not specific for ethylene glycol toxicity, and by the time these blood tests show evidence of kidney failure, the prognosis is grave to poor (since it is too late to treat with the antidote). If you see any of the following first stage signs, it’s important that you provide immediate medical attention for your dog: The symptoms of the second stage of ethylene glycol toxicity can be deceptive, as a dog’s condition may seem to improve during this time, even though the situation is becoming more dire. Ethylene glycol itself is not toxic, but it is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. These conditions can cause vomiting, lethargy, and progressive deterioration of the pet. Medication may be given to increase urine production. Are the final symptoms of ethylene glycol ( within a few hours of ingestion suspects recent glycol. Is reviewed commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50 % with water when used in the stomach ) also indicated... Tests and subsequent treatment recommendations as soon as possible after consumption of pet! 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